What are the benefits of using ID rather than class for styling purposes in HTML


In this tutorial, we are detailed explanation of the benefits of using IDs over classes for styling purposes in HTML.

benefits of using ID rather than class for styling purposes in HTML

In HTML, both IDs and classes are used as CSS selectors to target and apply styles to specific elements. However, IDs offer several advantages over classes, particularly in scenarios where you need to provide unique styling or target specific elements with precision.


One of the primary benefits of using IDs is their higher specificity compared to classes. Specificity refers to the rules that determine which CSS styles take precedence when multiple styles are applied to the same element.

IDs have a higher specificity value than classes. This means that an ID selector will override a class selector with the same properties. If you have an element that requires unique styling, using an ID ensures that the styles defined for that ID will take precedence over any styles defined for a class.

<h1 class="heading">Heading 1</h1>
<h1 id="special-heading">Special Heading</h1>

Using the following CSS:

.heading {
  color: blue;

#special-heading {
  color: red;

In this case, the "#special-heading" ID selector will override the class selector, resulting in the "Special Heading" being displayed in red, while the other heading will remain blue. This specificity allows you to apply unique styles to specific elements in a targeted manner.

Unique Identification

Another benefit of using IDs is their ability to provide unique identification to elements within an HTML document. Unlike classes, which can be applied to multiple elements, an ID should only be assigned to a single element.

This unique identification makes it easier to target specific elements in your stylesheets or JavaScript code. By assigning an ID to an element, you create a clear and distinct reference point that can be utilized to apply specific styles or manipulate the element programmatically.

  <li id="item1">Item 1</li>
  <li>Item 2</li>
  <li id="item3">Item 3</li>

#item1 {
  font-weight: bold;

#item3 {
  color: red;

In this case, the element with the ID "item1" will have a bold font weight, while the element with the ID "item3" will have red text color. These styles can be applied to specific elements without affecting other list items, providing a clear and targeted approach to styling.

Faster Selection

Selecting an element by its ID is generally faster than selecting by class. The browser can use optimized methods to find an element with a specific ID directly, resulting in faster rendering and improved performance.

When you use an ID selector, the browser can quickly locate the element in the document structure based on the unique ID assigned to it. This efficiency becomes more noticeable when dealing with complex web pages or documents with a large number of elements.

By leveraging the speed of ID-based selection, you can optimize the performance of your web pages, particularly when applying styles dynamically or manipulating elements using JavaScript.

Anchor Links

IDs are commonly used for creating anchor links within a web page. An anchor link allows users to navigate directly to a specific section or element within the page.

By assigning an ID to a particular section or element, you can create anchor links that refer to that ID. When a user clicks on an anchor link, the browser automatically scrolls to the section or element associated with the ID, providing a smooth and convenient navigation experience.

<h2 id="section1">Section 1</h2>
<p>Content of section 1 goes here...</p>

<h2 id="section2">Section 2</h2>
<p>Content of section 2 goes here...</p>

    <li><a href="#section1">Go to Section 1</a></li>
    <li><a href="#section2">Go to Section 2</a></li>

In this case, by using the href attribute with the corresponding ID as the URL fragment identifier in the anchor links, users can click on the links and jump directly to the respective sections on the page. This makes it easier for users to navigate through lengthy or content-rich pages.

It's important to use IDs judiciously and maintain best practices when working with them. Here are a few considerations:

  • IDs should be unique within an HTML document. It's not valid to have multiple elements with the same ID.
  • IDs are typically best suited for elements that require specific, individualized styles or have unique functionality.
  • Avoid overusing IDs throughout your HTML structure. Instead, use them selectively and prioritize the use of classes for more flexible and reusable styling.
  • Ensure that your IDs have descriptive names that reflect the purpose or function of the associated element.

Using both Class and Id

When both a class and an ID are used on the same HTML tag, they can coexist and serve different purposes without conflict.

The class attribute allows you to apply a class to an element, which can be shared by multiple elements throughout the HTML document. It is used to group and apply common styles to those elements.

The ID attribute, on the other hand, provides a unique identifier for a specific element within the HTML document. It should only be assigned to a single element.

<p class="highlight" id="special-paragraph">This is a special paragraph.</p>

In this case, the element has both a class attribute with the value "highlight" and an ID attribute with the value "special-paragraph".

The class attribute allows you to apply a shared style to multiple elements that have the same class. For example, you can define a CSS rule targeting the class "highlight" and apply specific styles to all elements with that class:

.highlight {
  background-color: yellow;
  font-weight: bold;

In this case, any element with the class "highlight" will have a yellow background color and bold font weight.

On the other hand, the ID attribute provides a unique identifier for the specific paragraph element. This ID can be used to target this element individually in CSS or JavaScript:

#special-paragraph {
  color: red;

In this case, the paragraph with the ID "special-paragraph" will have red text color. The ID selector has higher specificity than the class selector, so the styles defined for the ID will take precedence over any conflicting styles defined for the class.


In conclusion, using IDs instead of classes in HTML for styling purposes offers higher specificity, unique identification, faster selection, and support for anchor links. These benefits make IDs valuable in scenarios where you need to style specific elements distinctly or create targeted navigation within a webpage.

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